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Hyaluronic Acid: The Reason for Its Variety of Physiological and Biochemical Functional Properties

[ Vol. 6 , Issue. 2 ]


Rami Al-Khateeb* and Jelena Prpic   Pages 112 - 159 ( 48 )


Introduction: Many physicians may be unfamiliar with the importance of hyaluronic acid (HA) and its physiological and biochemical functions at cellular level. Despite the vast number of published studies using HA in medical treatments, it is still difficult for the reader to clearly distinguish the different types of HA employed in different medical applications. In addition, published studies do not mention the exact type of HA used or its biochemical properties. Usually, a study mentions only its molecular weight and concentration, which are insufficient to know its exact designed properties or to make a comparison with other types of HA.

Methodology: This article is intended to summarise the information about native and modified HAs with a focus on explaining their different physiological and biochemical functions in the human body, their different commercially available types, and how they affect the associated medical applications. The goal is to provide a basis to researchers and physicians for distinguishing different types of HA and their properties in order to enhance physicians’ clinical practice in terms of application of different types of HA to treatments and to help the international research community to change the reporting of HA characteristics in published papers. This is necessary to enhance future acquisition of data, with the ability to create an HA data bank for further research and as a reference for different HA types and their medical applications.

Conclusion: These developments should enhance the scientific and clinical knowledge about HA. Furthermore, the overall approach in this paper can be applied to other similar substances.


Hyaluronic acid, hyaluronan, hyaluronan cross-linking, hyaluronan hydrogel, hyaluronan molecular weight, hyaluronan synthesis, hyaluronan degradation, hyaluronidase, extracellular matrix, glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan modification, hyaluronan medical applications, hyaluronan production, hyaluronan cellular functions, hyaluronan physiochemical functions.


Elaf Medical Supplies Company®, Amman, School of Dental Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka

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